Special Track 2
Title: Governance of the digital transformation of health systems
Tugce Schmitt, Hertie School (corresponding author)
Mujaheed Shaikh, Hertie School
Taking the digitalization trend during the Covid-19 pandemic into account, it is almost certain that this progress will reshape the countries’ public services in the near future, especially in healthcare. Health services is becoming more digital, preventive, interconnected and patient-centered. Furthermore, in order to prevent health threats in the future, governments will pay special attention to data-driven policies for example by using Big Data. Legal, social, ethical or political factors in the national context have a substantial effect when taking policy decisions for making use of the available data in silos. On the other hand, patients or citizens produce each and every day health-related data by using mobile applications, wearables or having (digital) medical visits. Despite the challenges, the global trend indicates that increasingly more national public health systems, health insurances or sickness funds capitalize on digitalization by collecting and incorporating patients’ and citizens’ data into the intelligence they need.
Health-relevant data are produced and used in various ways and levels. On the macro-level, collection of data about the health status of patients and citizens lays the groundwork for evidence-informed decision-making and makes policymakers more accountable for the interventions they design. Similarly, being able to interpret Big Data becomes increasingly important for the governments especially in the field of infectious diseases. On the other hand, in health service delivery, using the available, yet usually dispersed set of data on individuals in a more meaningful way provides relevant and more actionable insights. For instance, some health insurance funds in Germany started to shift their focus from curing illness toward health promotion by rewarding physical activity with the utilization of wearables such as smart watches or fitness wristbands. In the context of integrated care, Finland introduced a nation-wide Patient Data Repository in which the patients can view and share with the health professionals information on their medical records, diagnoses, risk factors, laboratory test results, X-ray examinations and prescriptions. On the other hand, France, Sweden, and United Kingdom have an established stage of telemedicine adoption. To complete the puzzle concerning the vast differences in innovation deployments between the countries, more knowledge should be acquired on the critical factors concerning the health governance, e-governance and national context.
To this end, we want to discuss in this Special Track two essential themes. We know that some countries have more data-driven policies and are more developed in digital transformation comparing to others. What are the enablers and barriers of such improvements? Understanding the underlying mechanisms in national settings towards digitalization can unveil the reason why the digital transformation in certain environments happens. How can we best address the “contextual” challenges in the digital transformation of health systems and data-driven policies? What are the country experiences? Apart from the political, social, ethical and legal factors, what are the technical requirements for a data-driven, innovative health systems? How to tackle with the interoperability of the data between the sectors and different silos? What are the enabling or hindering governance factors for digital transformation that reflect countries’ readiness for such innovations?
Thematical topics in this Special Track will cover all the digital solutions that aim to bring innovative solutions to healthcare systems, including, but not limited to, the implementation of electronic patient records, personal health records, telehealth, health information exchange, health information systems for surveillance and the meaningful use of Big Data as well as Artificial Intelligence in health. In doing so, we would like to explore the underlying governance factors in the countries that have enabled to put data-driven policies and innovative solutions into practice. From policymaking point of view, we are very much interested in finding an answer to close the “know-do” gap and would like to discuss with the colleagues the facilitators or the barriers through the lens of in political, economic, social and technological circumstances. With this in mind, country case studies, theoretical explanations, frameworks, surveys or interviews especially with policymakers that can shed light on the meaningful use of patients’ or citizens’ health-relevant data in decision-making will be welcomed in this Special Track. Digitalization of healthcare services seems to necessitate the right set-up in governments and a positive attitude of patients or citizens towards using these services. Thus, scholars working in this area can address this topic from push/pull sides giving details on supply (from government) or demand (from patients or citizens) factors.